Practice blog

Homelessness for domestic abuse survivors can and must be prevented

Matt Downie is Director of Policy and External Affairs at Crisis, a national charity for homeless people. For an audio version of this blog, scroll to the bottom of the page or visit our Soundcloud profile.

Domestic abuse is a crime that devastates lives in many ways, and one that too often leads to homelessness; 11% of all homeless acceptances by local authorities in 2016 were due a violent relationship breakdown, and 20% of Crisis’ clients experienced domestic abuse in the past year.

The safety net for survivors is fragmented at best, and we have seen disturbing evidence that many women are being turned away by councils when they present as homeless.

Homelessness can increase the risk of further abuse

Once rough sleeping, the likelihood of experiencing further abuse is great. Nearly one in four female rough sleepers has been sexually assaulted in the past year. Homeless women are often less visible, particularly when rough sleeping, and many women avoid services which are engineered for men. Refuges are a vital safety net for survivors but these are on the brink of a funding crisis and are already turning people away due to lack of space. However, homelessness for domestic abuse survivors must and can be prevented.

Recommendations for homelessness prevention

The All-Party Parliamentary Group for Ending Homelessness (APPGEH) recently published its first-year report, which looked specifically at homelessness prevention for survivors of domestic abuse. The group, made up of cross party MPs, spoke to experts in the field, organisations on the ground and women who have experienced homelessness and domestic abuse. The group found that services aren’t aligning, support which should be in place is failing, and that there is a lack of overall responsibility between public services. The following points are key recommendations from the APPGEH first-year report:

  • Extending priority status: National Government should extend priority need status to all survivors of domestic abuse, to give people a right to re-housing and to bring about a change in culture towards survivors in local authority Housing Options teams.


  • Housing First: the Government should provide funding to trial and then scale-up a ‘Housing First’ model of support specifically for survivors of domestic abuse who have additional support needs. This would ensure survivors are immediately re-housed, which will allow them to safely to address their other needs thereafter


  • Ensuring survivors maintain tenancies: the APPGEH found that the Pan London Reciprocal has been successfully preventing homelessness for survivors of abuse. It helps people rebuild lives and save tenancies by providing a like for like property in another town. The APPGEH recommends that the Government follows on from this success and implements an England wide housing reciprocal initiative.


  • Police referrals to housing: the police should ask all women whether they need help and support with housing, regardless of risk level, and refer them to a Housing Options team if they consent. The APPGEH found that a survivor will face abuse 40 times on average before calling the police and this is usually because a victim has no access to money to support them after fleeing. This referral system aligns closely with the Duty to Refer within the Homelessness Reduction Act and could be included in the Act’s Code of Guidance.


The group welcomes the draft Domestic Violence and Abuse Bill included in the Queen’s Speech this year and will ask the Government to include its recommendations in the Bill.  


For all the APPGEH’s recommendations on homelessness prevention for survivors of domestic violence and for more information on the group, please go to: 

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Youth homelessness and its intersection with domestic abuse

This blog was written by Paula Mayock and Sarah Parker, School of Social Work and Social Policy, Trinity College Dublin. For an audio version, scroll to the bottom of the page or visit our Soundcloud profile.

Homelessness represents one of the most extreme manifestations of social exclusion, and the consequences for young people are arguably even more severe than for adults. Unlike homeless adults, young people who leave home prematurely are leaving relationships based on social and economic dependence – on a parent or guardian – and they suddenly face the challenge of a rapid transition to adulthood without the necessary financial, emotional or social supports. Large numbers of young people will also have experienced trauma in their home environments during the months and years prior to first becoming homeless. There is now robust evidence in several European countries, including the UK and Ireland, that experiences of violence, victimisation and domestic abuse are common among young people who experience homelessness (Fitzpatrick, 2000; Mayock et al., 2014; Quilgars, 2011; Quilgars et al. 2008).

In this blog, we discuss the relationship between youth homelessness and domestic abuse. First, we look at violence and abuse as a cause of homelessness. Second, we talk about young people’s experiences in the spaces they occupyy after becoming homeless, where many encounter further exposure to violence. Third, we sketch what we describe as the cyclical nature of violence and abuse within these young people’s lives.

We will draw on the narrative accounts of young people who participated in a recently completed qualitative longitudinal study of youth homelessness in Ireland, which ‘tracked’ the experiences of homeless young people over a period of more than two years (between mid-2013 and mid-2016).[1] These young people’s accounts provide a brief glimpse into their experiences of domestic abuse, violence and victimisation, and  shed light on the ways in which homelessness and abuse intersect over time.

Young people’s pathways out of home: violence, conflict and abuse in family settings

Complex, typically long-standing and sometimes severe family difficulties – including experiences of childhood neglect, physical and/or emotional victimisation, sexual abuse, parental substance misuse and domestic violence perpetrated by parents, step-parents and/or siblings – were very commonly reported and were central to the narrative accounts of a large number of the study’s young people. For many, these experiences began during early childhood and persisted into adolescence, culminating in young people either being ‘thrown out’ of their homes or fleeing voluntarily to escape volatile, unstable and abusive home environments:

 He [step father] was trying to batter [beat] me like but I ran out of the house, now I’m barred from the house” (Ashley, age 19).

Social work intervention was reported by young people to be unsuccessful in most of these instances, often due to professionals favouring parental accounts.

[Social workers] never listen to me, what I have to tell them or anything. Like when they ask me the reasons why I don’t want to be at my ma’s and I’ve told him the reasons and showed him the marks and the things that I’ve had while I was there and they never even bothered doing anything about it” (Aaron, age 16).

Other barriers to disclosing domestic abuse included young peoples’ fears that disclosing abuse would result in an escalation of violence and/or their removal from the family home and placement in care.

Young People’s Journeys Through Homelessness: Violence and Victimisation in the Context of Homelessness

Very frequently, young people did not immediately access homelessness services (often because of the stigma attached to the label ‘homeless’) and, instead, stayed temporarily with family members or friends. However, these living arrangements usually proved unsustainable and young people subsequently entered into the official network of homeless youth via the homeless hostel or shelter system. Without exception, young people depicted ‘hostel life’ in sharply negative terms, often reporting a culture of intimidation and bullying and stating that they constantly feared for their safety and personal belongings: “I actually had to sleep with my bags tied around my legs so I couldn’t get robbed” (Fiona, age 19). A number of young women reported that they had experienced sexual harassment in the contexts of emergency shelter provision and/or when sleeping rough.

During our first interview with Oisín, he told that he had been exposed to extreme violence in his family home as a child: My old fella used to batter [beat] my ma like, do you know what I mean. We all used to batter each other and all, we were killing [hitting] each other … that’s what was going on” (Oisín, age 24). When we re-interviewed Oisín approximately two years later he recounted the experience of sleeping rough, explaining that he had witnessed violent assaults in street-based settings, which left him feeling “disturbed”.

A bloke beside me, the whole back of his neck all the way around there, ripped open right in front of me … You could be with 6 or 7 blokes, you could fall asleep, one of them could do a turn [become violent]. You don’t what’s gonna happen … But we [referring to friend] were both right disturbed after seeing some bad assaults. Its bang out violent, do you know what I mean? (Oisín, age 26).

The cyclical nature of violence and abuse

Experiences of violence and abuse were deeply traumatic and distressing for young people, and many who reported early experiences of domestic abuse frequently went on to experience other forms of violence and victimisation in their lives. Sarah, for example, explained that her childhood was characterised by sustained domestic abuse in her family home: They [referring to father and step mother] were very abusive, just like violent they were very violent towards each other as well and the Guards [police] were always called. We had a horrible life growing up” (Sarah, age 23). She told that she then entered into an abusive relationship in her early 20s because she “thought it was normal”.

He [partner] used to be vicious and I used to take it because like is this what happens to you? Do you just get battered by everybody? It was because like I knew no better, I was after growing up like that so I thought it was normal and I think I was used to all the conflict. Like I wasn't used to anyone being nice or you know anything like that. I used to look at myself and compare myself to my mam … I was saying, ‘I am destined to be like me ma I don't deserve anything better but what me Ma had’”.

Sarah’s was not an isolated story; other young women also told of intimate partner relationships where they experienced challenges and difficulties related to various forms of emotional and/or physical abuse.


Providing safe environments where young people can discuss issues related to violence and abuse – underpinned by the aim of interrupting experiences of violence across the life course – must be seen as paramount. Rarely, if ever, did young people speak about having had the opportunity to talk about or discuss ways of dealing with these issues or experiences in their interactions with service professionals. It is also clear that there is a high risk that young people may experience further trauma related to violence/victimisation after they enter into the homeless service sector. Swift exits from homelessness services to stable, sustainable housing are therefore critical. Equally, it must be recognised that the provision of housing alone will not necessarily mark an end to homelessness or housing instability in the case of young people. Tailored support – including programmes that specifically seek to address the trauma resulting from past or more recent experiences of violence and abuse – are required if solutions to youth homelessness are to be successful and lasting.



Dr. Paula Mayock is an Assistant Professor at the School of Social Work and Social Policy, Trinity College Dublin (TCD) and has been conducting research on homelessness for several years. She is the founder of the Women’s Homelessness in Europe Network (WHEN), which aims to promote research and scholarship on women’s homelessness at a European level (

Sarah Parker is a PhD student and Government of Ireland Scholar at the School of Social Work and Social Policy, TCD and is researching family homelessness and housing exclusion.


Fitzpatrick, S. (2000) Young Homeless People. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Mayock, P., Parker, S. and Murphy, A. (2014) Young People, Homelessness and Housing Exclusion. Dublin: Focus Ireland, Dublin.

Mayock, P. and Parker, S. (2017) Living in Limbo: Homeless Young People’s Paths to Housing. Dublin: Focus Ireland.

Quilgars, D. (2011) Youth homelessness. In: E. O’Sullivan, v. Busch-Geertsema, D. Quilgars and N. Pleace (Eds) Homelessness Research in Europe. Brussels: FEANTSA. pp. 187-210.

Quilgars, D., Johnsen, S. and Pleace, N. (2008) Ending Youth Homelessness: Possibilities, Challenges and Practical Solutions. Centre for Housing Policy, University of York and School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University.



Phase 1 of the longitudinal research referred to here was funded by Focus Ireland and Phase 2 was funded by Focus Ireland in collaboration with Simon Communities of Ireland, Threshold, Peter McVerry Trust and Society of St Vincent de Paul.


[1] The research used a biographical or ‘life story’ approach, which enabled young people to tell their stories in a way that was personally relevant and meaningful. The conduct of follow-up interviews allowed young people to reflect on their situations and to construct narratives rooted in experience, both past and present (Mayock et al., 2014; Mayock and Parker, 2017).

Find out about SafeLives training for professionals working with young people experiencing domestic abuse.

'The journey I've walked' – empowering victims of domestic abuse and homelessness

Tee Falcone is an ambassador for the Woman's Trust and St Mungo's, the homelessness charity. She is a member of the Client Advisory Board, a formal group of current and former St Mungo's clients who work closely with the Chief Executive and Board, offering valuable insight into proposals for projects and services. In this blog, Tee looks at the connection between domestic abuse and homelessness, and her experience working with St Mungo's. For an audio version of this blog, scroll to the bottom of the page or visit our Soundcloud profile.

Shall we start at the beginning? Can you imagine what that looks like? Fresh, bright, exciting?

In fact – no. 

What if the beginning is lovely, but also frightening, chaotic, cloudy? That's more like life after domestic violence.

Escape planning – and a new beginning

Escaping a perpetrator of domestic violence can take months of precision planning, like an army exercise. Imagine making your escape, only to find yourself homeless. You have left behind your entire home, your belongings and a part of yourself.

Your vision of the imminent future is uncertain, and you are longing to block out the past. Perhaps you revert to putting on a brave face, the all-too-familiar mask you'd been wearing during your destructive time with your 'other half'. 

Domestic violence comes in many forms: physical, psychological, coercive, financial. There isn't necessarily a particular 'type' of perpetrator – however deep low self-esteem and the hunger for power and control is the common factor. All too often when I'm in groups of women affected by domestic violence, you hear the comment: 'he sounds like my ex'.

So what's next? You'll need to rebuild your life, your trust, your future – but not yourself! You are perfect as you are and as you were. 

Many specialist organisations can help with counselling, therapy, workshops, support groups – the list is endless. I focus on empowering women to gain back their confidence and self-worth through my talks, discussion groups, motivational speeches and therapeutic writing sessions – this passion runs through my veins. 

'I work to empower homeless women'

When I was first told that the St Mungo's Client Advisory Board was looking for new members, my initial response was 'I've never experienced homelessness so what can I bring of any benefit?'

But thinking about my work as an ambassador for the charity Woman's Trust – which helps women in London affected by domestic violence and abuse to overcome the mental and emotional harm and rebuild their lives – I decided that, in fact, there was something of great value I could contribute to St Mungo's. 

My passionate commitment to the Client Advisory Board has enabled me to be a voice for women affected by domestic violence. During our meetings I address women's issues in particular; this has become my specialist subject. I work to empower homeless women at St Mungo's but also all survivors of domestic violence who have been broken down and stripped of their confidence. 

My involvement with my many projects involving homeless women has given me first-hand knowledge of the barriers they face. For example, applying for a passport without a birth certificate. If your only means of survival was to escape your perpetrator, then you may well have left all your important documents behind. As I said earlier, precision planning is often needed just to escape safely. 

Two women each week die at the hands of their abuser, often at the point of leaving. This is the most dangerous time. Let's never forget this heartbreaking, shocking and very real statistic. 

A message for survivors

Through my work, I urge women to find your voice. Don't shy away, ask for assistance in rebuilding your shattered perception of life – it will improve. 

My message to survivors at their new beginnings is this:

You will find yourself reading signs of unhealthy relationships much better, and slowly you will feel energised to put yourself first and be non-accepting of any form of controlling behaviour. 

Until then, choose your peer group carefully and don't become co-dependent. This is your healing period to regain your sense of self. 

Please believe there is a better future ahead, away from any form of the controlling narcissistic behaviour of others. You won't always be consumed by fear and the past. You are valuable, be kind to yourself.

With sincere gratitude for the journey I've walked.



Read the St Mungo's report on women and homelessnes: Rebuilding Shattered Lives


Homelessness and abuse amongst street sex-working women in Bristol

Anna Smith is CEO for One25, a Bristol based charity that specialises in providing support to women involved in street sex-working women. 

80% of the women who are involved in street sex work in Bristol are homeless and the vast majority are what we would call ‘hidden homeless’. Almost all have experienced abuse in childhood, which has continued in their adult lives. They are among the most vulnerable in our city.

Hidden from statistics

It used to be that, according to official statistics, women made up 10% of the homeless community. The new number is more like 20%. But the reality is that women often aren’t counted in these figures, either because they don’t come forward, or because they are technically housed but in a very vulnerable situation.

Technically housed but incredibly vulnerable

Some women may theoretically have a roof over their head but they are living in a situation that is highly inappropriate and often involves drug addiction and abuse. I can think of one woman who is being pimped by her partner. Men are coming to her home to have sex with her against her will, but she is stuck there in order to keep a roof over her head. Women end up sleeping in hostels that are mixed which is not safe for them either. Last week a woman told us that she was in her room when a male resident walked in and exposed himself.

We have a situation where women would rather stay in a “home” where there is sexual exploitation and domestic abuse, than sleep rough on the streets. This should not be a choice that any woman has to make.

Increasing need and dwindling resources

In Bristol, we used to have two women-only hostels; now we only have one. This means that women have only one choice of where to go which can be very difficult if there is an issue with someone else in that hostel which means it is not safe for them to be there. We have Spring of Hope, one women-only night shelter with 12 beds which is fantastic, but that is often full and is only open five days a week.

It’s summer, and people are camping in tents along the wharf – I worry about what will happen to them in winter. I see people sleeping out all over the city as I move around. I have almost cycled over women sleeping in the cycle lane of the underpass, in the car park spaces at the multi-storey and in doorways too.

Barriers to safe housing

For the women we support, there are many challenges when it comes to accessing secure housing; the assessment can be a difficult process. It means getting down to the office to sit for hours and go through quite a gruelling process. This isn’t easy for anybody, but especially not for the women that we work with. It’s long periods of time, lots of probing questions, a busy environment which may not be reassuring and, once they have been assessed, there is often a further wait to find out where she can go that night.

When women are housed their tenancy can be at risk, because their behaviour is deemed risky. For example, they might be bringing punters into the house, or there may be disruption around their alcohol or drug use. If they are evicted because of this they can be deemed ‘intentionally homeless’ which makes it incredibly difficult for them to find them safe accommodation.

How One25 offers support

One25’s specialist worker advocates for the women and supports them to get into emergency accommodation, hostels and their own tenancies. Many women go in and out of the hostel accommodation and it’s all about that gradual change. So somebody might go into a hostel and then into prison, and then into a hostel, and then rough sleep, and then into prison and then into a hostel… during this time they’re making little changes which eventually mean that she can to move to a lower level of support. A few weeks ago, we housed four women, so we work very hard to get women safe.

Our specialist IDSVA also works to advocate for women at Marac, to advocate for that woman’s needs and her vulnerability so that she can be priority housed.

The future

I think there really is a will in Bristol to change the situation. There are long-term plans to build more hostels and move-on space, all of which is brilliant. There is also a genuine desire to overcome the barriers to women being housed and multi-agency groups like Golden Key are looking at this in detail. It is acknowledged in the housing community that people are dying on the streets, it is often not reported but we think this is an outrage and are working hard with decision makers to improve this.

Audio version:



Now CEO for One25Anna Smith was formerly with Bristol domestic abuse charity Survive and London-based Advance Charity.

One25 was founded in 1995. It is the only organisation in Bristol specifically for women involved in, or at risk of entering, street sex work. Each year we work with 230 women, around 130 of whom are selling sex on Bristol’s streets. We use a flexible person-centred approach, which builds trust and meets women where they are through night outreach, a drop-in and one-to-one casework support. Last year we saw 37 brave women break free from this lifestyle and build new lives away from violence, poverty and addiction. 

This article is part of our Spotlight series in which we consider groups of domestic abuse victims who may be 'hidden' from services - in this case those who are homeless. Read more from this series:

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Motherhood, homelessness and abuse: the importance of a gendered approach

Katherine Sacks-Jones is the Direct of Agenda, Alliance for Women and Girls at Risk. In this blog she outlines the specific needs of women experiencing homelessness, and why support must take these into account. For an audio version of this blog, scroll to the bottom of the page or visit our Soundcloud profile.

The causes and experiences of women’s homelessness are quite distinct from those of men.

We know, for example, that homeless women experience high rates of violence. Agenda’s Hidden Hurt report found that  1.2 million women in England have experienced extensive abuse – a fifth of these women have been homeless, compared to only 1% of women with little or no experience of abuse. Homelessness also exposes women to a high risk of violence.

Homeless women are often left with lasting trauma, have poor mental health and some misuse substances to cope. Their needs are distinct from men’s. Yet most homeless services aren’t set up to respond to women’s needs. Hostels are often predominantly used by men which means they can be intimidating and unsafe places for women. 

A gendered approach to supporting women who are homeless is essential to helping them rebuild their lives. An important part of this is to take into account the fact that many homeless women are mothers, whether or not their children are in their care.

Half of the “single homeless” women St. Mungo’s works with, for example, are in fact mothers, and more than three quarters (79%) of these have had children taken into care.

Having children removed into care, particularly when they are permanently removed, can be deeply traumatic for women, and can often trigger worsened mental health or substance misuse problems. Services need to offer tailored support to these women; to deal with the trauma of losing a child, to establish contact with children, or around care proceedings.

Women facing multiple disadvantage often speak of the importance of motherhood to their identity, and it can also be a motivating factor for engaging with services and turning their lives around.

A vital aspect of a gendered approach to homelessness is therefore to understand and respond to the needs of homeless mothers appropriately, taking into account the trauma of losing children, and the importance of motherhood as an identity. This is a response that must include the experiences of “single” women for whom motherhood is often just as much a significant part of their identity as those who are with their children.

Many mothers may face specific difficulties, which are overlooked in systems not tailored to women’s needs. For example, some women who become homeless, and whose children are temporarily out of their care (because for example of imprisonment) can find themselves trapped in a vicious cycle. They need a home to be able to look after their children. Social services are unlikely to return children to their mothers without one – but without children, they are not a priority for local authority housing assistance. As a result, children can be kept apart from their mothers unnecessarily, simply due to a lack of suitable accommodation.

On top of this, women whose children are taken into the care of a close friend or relative can sometimes be prevented from seeing the person they have entrusted their child to. This cuts them off from loved ones who could provide a vital support network to help them rebuild their lives.

In many cases, women with complex needs will need much more intensive support to be able to parent safely and well. The welfare of children must always be paramount, but in some cases supporting a child to live safely with its mother is best for both mother and child. This mustn’t be prevented from happening when the barriers are purely practical ones, like a lack of suitable accommodation.

In thinking about how we approach homelessness, it is important that there are services designed with women’s specific needs in mind. This must include support for women who are mothers, with or without children in their care. Women’s needs, their experiences of trauma and the identities which motivate them to change must be taken into account in order to give women a real chance at turning their lives around.


About Katharine Sacks-Jones

Katharine became the inaugural Director of Agenda, the alliance for women and girls at risk, in May 2015.  She brings 15 years’ experience working across policy, campaigns, public affairs and parliament. She is an expert in social policy, has written extensively on issues around social exclusion and sits on a number of government advisory groups including currently the Advisory Board for Female Offenders and she co-chairs the Women’s Mental Health Taskforce at the Department of Health. Before joining Agenda, Katharine led the Policy & Campaigns team at Crisis.


Agenda is an alliance of more than 80 organisations who have come together to campaign for change for women and girls at risk. They work to ensure that women and girls at risk of abuse, poverty, poor mental health, addiction and homelessness get the support and protection they need.