Practice blog

Understanding sexuality and gender discrimination: interview with Poppy Freeman

In this interview, SafeLives Knowledge Hub Advisor Collette Eaton-Harris speaks to Poppy Freeman, an intake and assessment worker at a domestic abuse charity. Poppy also holds an MA in gender, sexuality and culture from Manchester University.

Collette: Welcome Poppy. So we're here today to talk about sexuality and gender discrimination. Can you start by explaining why you think it's important to think about gender and sexuality separately?

Poppy: Yes, so we're going to talk about LGBT, and within that you've got lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. The LGB refers to sexuality and then transgender is referring to gender – and that is something completely separate. So 'transgender' is a term referring to someone whose gender identity doesn't match the biological sex they were assigned at birth, and within transgender communities there are people who identify as 'gender fluid', which means their gender identity doesn't fit into the binary model of male or female.

We tend to talk about sexuality as something that refers to the gender you're attracted to, whether that's physically or emotionally. Gender is a completely separate term, and it's often argued that gender is something which is socially constructed. It's usually seen as two opposing categories (male and female), and that’s seen as relating to a person's biological sex. So if you're born with certain sex organs you'll be referred to as male, and if you're born with certain other sex organs you'll be referred to as female.

C: And so historically service providers have tended to put services together for both gender and sexuality, are you able to say a bit about why that is?

P: I think that as minority groups they tend to be grouped together, in order to recognise that everyone within these communities are facing discrimination. But it is something that I think it's important to move away from slightly – we need to think about how we help people in transgender communities, and the way we help them will be different to the ways we help people from LGB communities.

C: So it's useful for individuals in those groups to gain support from each other, but it's not useful as service providers to generically treat everyone under that umbrella the same. Could you talk a bit more about the notion of gender being socially constructed?

P: So within equality movements, especially feminism, debates about gender started coming from I'd say about the 1970s. There started being ideas about gender being something that society creates. There’s a famous sociologist called Ann Oakley, who wrote about and researched around gender construction. She found that the minute a baby is born we're already gendering them, we're teaching them how we think they should act according to what gender we've assigned them. For example dressing baby girls in pink and dressing baby boys in blue.

People will handle babies differently; they might pick them up and be a bit more rough if it's a boy or if the baby is dressed in blue. Also how we speak to children: how we talk to girl children could be calling them a princess, with boy children we tend to do things like calling them strong, or telling them not to cry.

We're constantly being given these messages about our role in terms of gender, and we learn that there are consequences if we don't comply with that, if we're acting outside of the gender we're assigned at birth. For example little boys who want to wear dresses being told that they can't, maybe at home or at school, things like that.

C: So how does it help in terms of our practice then to understand this, and just how strong those gender messages are?

P: I think not just for practitioners but also in wider society, it's showing us that gender isn't something that’s innate that we're born with – it's ever changing, it's evolving, and it's something that we are socialised into. So this is where we start to talk about transgender and how this can open our eyes to try and understand people in transgender communities. Because if we're saying that, ok I've been assigned female at birth and I identify with that, but then you might find someone else who is assigned female at birth, and they are socialised into that role, but they don't feel like that is their gender – then that's just a really interesting way of looking at things and opening our minds to thinking ok, gender isn't something fixed, it's not something rigid, it's something that humans create themselves, not biological.

C: So another term that people may have heard is the term 'cisgender'. Can you explain a bit more about what cisgender is?

P: So cisgender is used to describe people who identify with the gender assigned to them at birth, so I was assigned female at birth and I identify as female, so therefore I am a cisgender female. And it's used in opposition to the word trans. I think another phrase you might hear is 'cis-normative', and that’s often used as a way to talk about discrimination against people in transgender communities. What it basically means is you're assuming that everyone is cisgender, and that that's the right way to be, and anyone outside of that is abnormal, or is going against social norms.

C: So that could be a very explicit and mindful discrimination, but I guess it could also be inadvertent discrimination out of ignorance? So creating forms that push people to choose either male or female as their gender.

P: Yes I think largely it will be unconscious because we are so used to just thinking of everyone as being cisgender, so yes it could be tick boxes on forms. When we're talking about domestic abuse, it's the assumption that most of our clients will be cisgender female, and the fact that the majority of domestic abuse practitioners are cisgender female as well.

C: Another term that's similar to cis-normative is heteronormative, could you say a bit about that?

P: Yes so heteronormative means assuming everyone is heterosexual, that it's the normal way of being, and that if you're not heterosexual that it's not normal or not right. So when I ask someone what their sexuality is and they say 'normal', I always challenge that and say ok, what is normal, what does normal mean to you? And it's getting people to reflect on that and think actually, maybe it's not 'normal' maybe it's just my way of being.

C: And the important point here is that really big, important documents, rules and legislation have been written in a way that there's been no consideration of anything other than this heterosexual norm.

So having talked about cis-normativity and heteronormativity, with that background and the discrimination and oppression that LGB or T people are experiencing in general, how does that then feed into the experience of domestic abuse?

P: I think because people in LGBT communities are already at increased risk of physical violence, of impacts on their physical and mental wellbeing, and the potential to create greater vulnerability, then if you identify as LGB or T then that's going to be further added to by being in an abusive relationship or having been a victim of domestic abuse.

Something that I won't go into too much detail about now but that people can go and look at is the Trans Murder Monitoring Project, and that's a research project done by TGEU and it records reported murders of trans people internationally. The statistics are tiny in comparison to the real number because it's only reported deaths, but it's really interesting to give people an idea of just how many trans people are murdered. I think just having that in mind – the greater vulnerability and the risk of violence to anyone within the LGBT community and in particular trans people.

And there's also another element to that which would be if you identify as LGBT, but you're in a relationship with someone who doesn't identify as LGBT, then that person will have more power than you in society; they're more likely to be taken seriously by people you normally come into contact with when we're talking about domestic abuse. And they can use that power to exploit their victim. So that's another way that they can be abusive.

Also something that can be really common is a cisgender person being in a relationship with a transgender person, and purposely using the wrong pronouns – so saying 'he' for a transgender woman and calling them by a name that they don't go by. That's obviously hugely emotionally abusive and is going to have a huge impact on that person.

So a person's LGBT status can massively affect a victim's ability to seek support for domestic abuse, and leaving the relationship. It may be that they fear discrimination from support agencies. I think there's also a lot of myths about domestic abuse only occurring in cisgender heterosexual relationships, which obviously as we know from the statistics just isn't true.

So I think all of those issues are really important, and that's why the experience of domestic abuse, if you identify as LGB or T is very different from if you don't identify in that way.

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Supporting LGBT+ survivors of sexual violence

Bev Higgins and Mark Sisterson are LGBT+ Independent Sexual Violence Advocates (Isvas) at The Rape and Sexual Violence Project in Birmingham; the only specialist LGBT+ Isvas in the UK.  In this blog, Bev and Mark describe some of the issues that LGBT+ people may face when reporting sexual violence, and share some good practice advice.

Rape, sexual assault & sexual abuse are experienced by a significant percentage of the population and are prevalent in the LGBT+ community too.  Several studies have suggested that LGB&T young people and adults are at higher risk of physical, emotional and sexual violence compared to heterosexual, cisgendered people, and Stonewall figures show that 26% of LGBT+ people have received unwanted sexual contact.

Acknowledging that you are being sexually abused or have been raped is hard enough, but even harder when trying to talk to someone to get help.  You may be afraid of accessing support if you have previously experienced discrimination for being LGBT+. Having to explain and justify yourself in terms of your sexuality or gender is an added pressure on top of the traumatic ordeal of disclosing a sexual assault. Homophobia and transphobia are still rife even in 2018, so accepting your own sexuality or gender identity can be a difficult thing to work through. Wider society is heteronormative and gender binary; any deviation from what is considered normal can become a target of hate. This can be due to fear, misunderstanding or intolerance.  Stonewall figures show that the number of LGBT+ people who have experienced a hate crime or incident in the last year has risen by 78% from 2013 to 2017 and four in five LGBT people (81%) who experienced a hate crime or incident didn't report it to the police. 

It can be frightening to think that you will not be accepted by the important people in your life. Even within the LGBT+ community there can be some difficulties being open and accepted. Often perpetrators of sexual violence use this fear of being outed to exploit and keep abusing their victims. Sometimes people are so afraid of others finding out about their LGBT+ identity they struggle to access or engage with LGBT+ venues/services. This can lead to increased isolation and vulnerability to sexual perpetrators.

There is little sex and relationships information for the LGBT+ community.  It should be an integral part of education within schools. Children may not be aware of why they feel different and trying to conform to a heterosexist, gender binary society may be difficult. LGBT+ young people are exploring and self-educating via the internet or through older LGBT+ people and may be more vulnerable to sexual abuse as a result.  Understanding the LGBT+ culture itself can be difficult even when you are part of it. Different terminology is used which can lead to confusion and issues around consent.  A lack of understanding may lead to people getting into sexual situations they didn’t intend.

Child sexual exploitation, gang affiliation and sex work all affect the LGBT+ community too. Young gay people can be trafficked and abused, gangs can target and rape LGBT+ people, sex work may be used to fund transitioning hormones & operations.

Trans* individuals experience a significantly high level of sexual violence hate crime. There can be a lot of internal homo/trans phobia projected onto partners. Society is often very intolerant of trans* people, and so they feel they are perceived as disgusting and worthless and are at risk of potentially more degrading, violent acts as the perpetrators justify their behaviour to themselves. This has huge implications for mental health; 48 % of trans people under 26 said they had attempted suicide, 59% had at least considered doing so. (Risk and Resilience Explored (RaRE) Report, 2015)

Trans* people can have body dysmorphia and body loathing of the wrong genitals which is exacerbated when targeted in sexual abuse.  This is humiliating to the individual; a part of the body they hate is violated and responsible for even more trauma.

Sexual abuse of any nature is a hidden problem and a difficult issue to talk about.  The LGBT+ community often are overlooked, misunderstood and can face prejudice. Fear of discrimination can lead to an avoidance of speaking to professionals when seeking support.   It is essential that all professionals are respectful and provide a safe, non-judgemental space to people of all sexualities & gender identities.  And crucial that they are sensitive to someone’s identity, seeing the person not the label. 

Recognise that LGBT+ individuals are born as the people they are, it is not a choice and they need support to enable them to be true to who they are.  Challenge any inappropriate attitudes or misunderstandings that arise from other professionals.  With trans* clients use the name and pronouns they present with.  If for official paperwork birth gender & name need to be recorded please explain this. And if you don’t understand any issue with a client -  don’t be afraid to politely ask them.  

The Rape & Sexual Violence Project

Supporting people so they can live in a world free from sexual violence and abuse and supporting and inspiring people to live confident hopeful futures after abuse.

 Charity Numbers 508669 & 1134387

Winners of Exceptional ISVA Team 2016

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Criminal justice responses to LGBT+ domestic abuse

Tiana Kooner is a third year Sociology and Criminology student at Cardiff University, currently writing a dissertation on the perceptions held by policy and practice stakeholders (such as charity workers) towards the services available to LGBT+ victims of domestic abuse. In this blog, Tiana describes some of her findings and recommendations to make services more inclusive. 

With the legalisation of same sex marriage, decriminalisation of gay practices and an ever increasing popularised mass media portrayal, it can be argued that the LGBT+ community are much more active, empowered and protected than they were in the past. But is this representative within the criminal justice system? When did you last see a same sex domestic violence poster put out there by the police? With no official statistics currently being collected on domestic abuse occurring within LGBT+ relationships, as well as the government’s focus on violence amongst women and girls, where does this leave victims who are not female or not heterosexual? This led me to think about the LGBT+ community and how their experiences of utilising domestic abuse services may differ.

From previous research it is already known that only a small minority of LGBT+ people report domestic abuse incidents to the police and with those who tend to report, the majority are unhappy with how their case was dealt with. This has meant that many victims prefer to seek out support from the third sector.  This trend is reflected in my research; 7 out of 8 participants showed a preference for third sector forms of support, due to beliefs that they are more likely to be believed and provided with specialist help than if they sought help from the criminal justice system.

However, it can be seen that there is an anomaly when it comes to incidents reported to Hampshire police, where the LAGLO (lesbian and gay liaison officers) scheme is implemented. As it was found that there was more likely to be a preference to turn to the police than what would normally be the case. The respondents saw this response as a result of the force “…proactively respond[ing] to victims of same sex relationships…”. 

Whilst it is still largely recognised by participants that there are a lot of barriers preventing all victims from turning to the police, it was also found that the age of the victim could play a role in influencing the decision to report. The research highlighted that those who were older and had past negative experiences with officers, were even less likely to confide in the police.

Whilst all respondents noted that efforts are being made to increase awareness and a wealth of services are being provided by the third sector, it can be argued, especially in terms of the criminal justice sector, that more still needs to be done towards equal and inclusive services.

Over half of the respondents still highlighted the large focus on tackling domestic abuse within heterosexual couples.  Whilst this is still extremely important, it shows that not enough light is given to those who do not fit the male perpetrator/female victim dynamic. This ‘cultural blindness’ was highlighted by a participant who worked on a domestic abuse homicide case, which was not actually recognised as domestic abuse due to it involving two gay men. This in turn, may further discourage LGBT+ victims to seek help or to even recognise that they have been subjected to domestic abuse.  We need to encompass all victims in order to make sure that “…no victim is turned away” and whilst it can be seen that progress is being made, there is still a lot more that needs to be done.

Suggested recommendations by participants:

  • Increased awareness in order to encourage more to come forward and report and also know where they can get help
  • More literature and pictures of diverse people
  • The rainbow flag or other signals to show the services are LGBT+ friendly
  • Education of the community and professionals. This can work with awareness raising in order to break down barriers victims may feel
  • Commissioning specialist services. For commissioners to show they are interested in helping and providing all inclusive services
  • Work to address perpetrator behaviours in LGBT+ relationships
  • More multi-agency approaches (for example between the police and charities but also housing associations, immigration workers etc.)
  • More support and services for bisexual and trans victims in particular, who may face more difficulties when it comes to accessing services.
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Suzie*'s story: a trans woman's experience of domestic abuse

Suzie* is a trans woman who, after experiencing domestic abuse, sought support from Independent Choices in Manchester which offers an LGBT+ service in partnership with the LGBT Foundation. Here she recounts her experience of domestic abuse and of meeting with Tiffany, an LGBT+ Idva.

Picture this. You’re in a marriage, one which you feel you were forced into – by family, friends and Society as a whole. You have a respectable job, a nice home and a ‘good wife’ but you are then put under immense pressure to follow suit and have children like all of your other friends. This isn’t want you wanted, but you do it anyway to keep everyone happy. To outsiders, you have the perfect life. But from a young age, you’ve always felt as if you were born into the wrong body… You’ve wanted to tell someone but have been too afraid so you internalise the pain. Life goes by, and whilst everyone around you seems to be happy in their own lives, you feel as though you’re falling deeper and deeper into a state of despair. In secret, you begin wearing your wife’s clothes, and talking to other trans people online and you become immersed in this ‘fantasy’ lifestyle which you so desperately wish was your own. You begin talking about coming out, online friends encourage you to reach out… to tell someone closest to you, to make that first step.

You have spent years imagining living as the person that you really are. You enact a conversation in your mind a million times over, of telling your wife how you feel until one day you feel confident enough to actually say it out aloud.

'I am transgender.'

And it falls on deaf ears. You say it again, and she laughs and walks off. You hear her in the kitchen on the phone talking to your sister and you can feel the fear running through your veins. What will your family say, will they tell anyone else? Will your colleagues find out? How will your children feel? Will you lose them?

Your wife has always been very dominant. She’s in charge of the finances because you can’t be trusted to get it right. She chooses who you spend time with and criticises any friends you had before her so over time they disappear. She chooses what you wear “you’re not allowed to wear pink, because you look like a fucking puff”. And for an easy life you adopt a submissive role.

But things get worse.

Life is spent feeling as if you’re walking on egg shells. She’s moody, and irritable and it’s easier to have sex than to tell her you don’t want it because you’ll be ridiculed and accused of being queer. Your mobile phone is monitored, she checks the itemised billing every month and questions every unknown number. She checks your sat nav history and if you’re a couple of minutes late all hell breaks loose. She constantly tells you to man the fuck up, and stop being such a submissive Sally.

She hits you. Once, then again and almost every day and you feel so weak inside. Your dad takes you to one side and tells you to get a grip, to be a man and act like one. There are no trannys in our family he says. And that he says is never gonna change.  But you’ve said it out loud now.  The fire that burns so brightly inside you is the only thing that is keeping you alive. 

You try to talk to your wife again, and tell her that you can’t carry on like this. She tells you that if you make that choice, you also choose to lose your home, your children and your family and that she would rather kill you than bring shame on the family. You feel suicidal, you want this to end.

Then one night, you stumble upon a website Greater Manchester Domestic Abuse Helpline. Then you find information about their LGBT Service. It tells you that you can get help, that you’re not alone. Does that include ME? You scribble down the number and the next day you buy a pay as you go phone and you call the number and someone answers. You break down as you tell them your story.

This is the first time that someone has actually listened, their voice is soft and accepting and it makes you feel safe. You arrange to meet up, to talk about your options – before this conversation you didn’t even know that you had any. You meet an LGBT Idva, she tells you her name is Tiffany and she asks you yours. You hesitate, but quietly tell her your name is Suzie and she smiles.  You’ve never said it out loud before and it feels so liberating.

Tiffany explains what Idva means and what support she can offer you. You’ve seen advertisements before, about domestic abuse services and refuges but you didn’t realise that the help they offer was open to someone that identified as transgender. You ask if they’ve helped anyone in this capacity before, they explain that its more common than you think and that although 80% of transgender individuals have experienced some form of abusive behaviour from a partner or ex-partner, only 60% recognised the behaviour as domestic abuse. Wow, you never even realised that you were part of that statistic. Together you and Tiffany look at your civil and criminal options, and she tells you that she will support you in reporting the abuse to the police.

You decide for your own safety that seeking a refuge space is the safest option right now. Do refuges accept individuals from the transgender community? And if they do, how will other people that live in the refuge react? Will you be accepted or will you be discriminated against? Are you strong enough for all of this? There’s so much to think about. Tiffany calms any fears you have and you begin to feel empowered. You complete a DASH together and it just magnifies how much abuse you have tolerated. This can’t carry on.

Tiffany explains the Marac process, and suddenly you feel as though you can finally see the light. Together, you ring a refuge out of the area that is trans inclusive, you explain your situation and they tell you that you have been accepted. Finally, you can live as Suzie – you can feel safe and you can start to envisage a life that you never thought you’d be able to live. Things aren’t always going to be easy, but you know now that you aren’t going to be alone.

*not her real name

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Barriers to accessing services for LGBT+ victims and survivors

Galop are the LGBT+ anti-violence charity, and run the national domestic abuse helpline for LGBT+ people. We are delighted to have Galop as our specialist domestic abuse partner for our Spotlight series. This blog is from Dr Jasna Magić – Galop’s LGBT domestic abuse research and policy officer – and Peter Kelley, manager of their London-wide domestic abuse service.

Presently, there are no official ONS statistics reported about experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans people with domestic violence and abuse that would establish a UK-wide picture. Evidence however suggests LGBT+ people experience equal or even higher prevalence of domestic violence and abuse, compared to heterosexual women. Studies found between 25% to 40% of LGB people report at least one incident of domestic abuse from a partner, a family member or someone close to them in their lifetimes[1]–[3]. Trans individuals may be even at a higher risk; research suggests between 28% to 80% of trans people had at least one experience of domestic abuse from a partner or a family member[3]–[5].

There is no doubt that domestic abuse in the lesbian, bisexual, gay and transgender community is a serious issue. However, despite high levels, it remains acutely underreported and LGBT+ survivors are disproportionally underrepresented in specialist domestic abuse services. For instance, less than 2% of all domestic abuse survivors accessing Idva services in England and Wales, identify as LGB[6] and  78% of gay and bisexual men and 80% of gay and bisexual women who have experienced domestic violence have never reported incidents to the police[1], [2].

While there are universal barriers to accessing specialist services, LGBT+ people can face additional challenges which are different to those experienced by heterosexual, cis women and men. Existing evidence[7] as well as our own experience suggests that LGBT+ people face a range of distinct barriers on a personal and systemic level, which often prevent them from getting the support they need. Personal barriers most often relate to LGBT+ people’s perception of self and the abuse and their perception of the support system. In contrast, systemic barriers relate to the way services are designed and delivered that may result in them being less accessible and inclusive for LGBT people.

Galop is an LGBT+ organisation working with victims/survivors of domestic violence and abuse. Our experience suggests that LGBT+ survivors might feel unsure of, or are reluctant to disclose their relationships and identity with non-LGBT+ organisations. LGBT+ survivors also often believe that non-LGBT services are ‘not for them’ and fear and/or anticipate being misunderstood or discriminated against by services. This fear is often rooted in significant experiences of discrimination due to sexuality or gender identity, which may include family rejection, hate crimes and previous experiences of discrimination. These experiences may inform a belief that service provision is a priori prejudiced and may result in concerns around disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Our experience also tells us LGBT+ people are particularly reluctant to report and engage with the police and are not likely to opt for cooperation or criminal justice outcomes in the context of domestic abuse.

LGBT+ survivors may also fail to recognise and acknowledge their experience as abuse. Domestic abuse is often discussed as problem of ‘weaker heterosexual cis woman abused by a physically stronger man’[8]. This narrative may influence a survivor’s perception of the abuse and result in a belief that domestic abuse doesn’t occur in same-sex or trans relationships. LGBT+ survivors might also be reluctant to talk about the abuse or seek help, to protect their abusive partner or family, avoid rejection and denial from their peers and keep their ties with what is often the only support system they know and feel accepted by. Negative self-image, guilt and other complex intersecting issues such as mental ill-health or uncertain immigration status make it difficult for them to leave the abusive situation.

We are noticing an increased awareness and interest from service providers to enhance their knowledge on unique experiences and tactics of abuse as experienced by LGBT+ people. However some of the systemic barriers, such as lack of knowledge and understanding around the spectrum of gender identities and sexualities and visibility and representation of LGBT+ issues within service delivery and provision, still exist. Both gaps can result in services not appearing competent and/or welcoming to adequately address the needs of LGBT+ survivors and encourage them to come forward.  

Often services lack appropriate interventions and outreach to LGBT+ victims. For example, available information on publicity materials and websites about domestic abuse support will refer exclusively to heterosexual cis women as victims/survivors and men as perpetrators. While we recognise this is often the case, the lack of visibility and representation of LGBT+ victims (and perpetrators) might negatively affect the decision of LGBT+ survivors to access help and support. Services might also lack established partnerships with LGBT+ organisations and specialist services, which may result in lack of appropriate referral pathways and lack of knowledge on the available support and resources. Specifically relating to both trans women’s and trans men’s experiences, services may continue to be offered or declined based on the victim’s sex assigned at birth rather than their gender identity.

What’s clear from the work Galop has developed over the years is that LGBT+ victims of violence and abuse often benefit from access to specialist LGBT+ services. Victims and survivors don’t have to explain who they are and can have trust and confidence in the service. LGBT+ DVA services are more able to provide appropriate help and advice as they have built up a wealth of experience and understanding of LGBT+ victims. The LGBT+ sector faces significant challenges to providing such services. The existence of LGBT+ victims and survivors are rarely acknowledged in DVA/VAWG strategies and there are few specialist LGBT+ DVA services across the UK. Existing services can often lack sustainability due to lack of continuity in funding. In addition, LGBT+ services can lack the resources to develop expertise to fully support the needs of victims and survivors. For example, there are very few LGBT+ Idvas. It’s crucial that commissioners and those delivering services recognise and respond to LGBT+ victims and survivors of domestic abuse and violence, and ensure that the expertise developed by specialist services isn’t lost.

Encouraging domestic violence and abuse services to be more responsive to the needs of LGBT+ people should not be seen as incompatible with initiatives tackling gender based violence and violence against women and girls. Understanding that LGBT+ people’s experiences of domestic violence and abuse can also be rooted in gender inequality and deep-rooted social norms, attitudes and behaviours that discriminate against and limit women and girls across all communities, can invigorate and meaningfully inform the endeavours striving to end all identity-based violence.

 

References:

[1]         J. Fish and R. Hunt, “Prescription for change: Lesbian and bisexual women’s health check.,” 2008.

[2]         A. Guasp, “Gay and Bisexual Men’s Health Survey,” Stonewall UK, London, 2011.

[3]         K. Browne, “Count me in too: LGBT Domestic Violence Summary.” University of Brighton, Spectrum, Brighton, UK, p. 2, 2009.

[4]         C. Bachman and B. Gooch, “LGBT in Britain: Trans Report.” Stonewall UK, London, 2018.

[5]         A. Roch, G. Ritchie, and J. Morton, “Out of sight, out of mind? Transgender People’s Experiences of Domestic Abuse,” LGBT Youth Scotland, Equality Network, Scottish Transgender Alliance, 2010.

[6]         SafeLives, “Insights Idva national dataset 2013–14: Adult independent domestic violence advisor (Idva) services.” SafeLives, 2015.

[7]         S. Harvey, M. Mitchell, J. Keeble, C. McNaughton Nicholls, and N. Rahim, Barriers Faced by Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People in Accessing Domestic Abuse, Stalking and Harassment, and Sexual Violence Services. Cardiff: NatCen Social Research, 2014.

[8]         C. Donovan, R. Barnes, and C. Nixon, “The Coral Project: Exploring Abusive Behaviours in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and/or Transgender Relationships Interim Report,” University of Sunderland and University of Leicester, 2014.

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